Kaufmann and others showed that biblical texts are monotheistic by this definition.The lower gods or angels of the Hebrew Bible differ from those of Canaanite, Mesopotamian, and Greek literature because they never successfully challenge Yhwh.It is not the number of divine beings that matters to monotheism but the relationships between them.A theology in which no one deity has ultimate power over all aspects of the universe is polytheistic (even if that theology knows only one deity); a theology in which one deity has supreme power is monotheistic (even if it knows other heavenly beings).Many Canaanite, Mesopotamian, and Greek texts narrate conflicts in which a high god is seriously threatened or overthrown.To be sure, biblical texts describe a conflict between Yhwh and the Sea (Isa 27:1, Isa 51:9-11; Hab 3:8; Ps -15, Ps 89:6-14; and Job 26:5-13).
In the History Channel video below, an Arab-Egyptian archaeologist inside the pyramid of King Teti (c. If he’s a bad guy, [he’ll] have to get punished.” The host comments, “So the same idea of sin existed here in the Egyptian times as it does later in Christian and all the other – “ The archaeologist responds, “I believe that religion is just one tree, and we have many branches – Islam, Christianity, and Jews – so it is a main tree.
Some interpreters understand Ps 82 to suggest that Yhwh became king of the universe at a particular moment, and Gen 6:1-4 could imply that Yhwh was genuinely worried by potential adversaries.
In Gen , Yhwh seems anxious that humans might claim divine power for themselves, which differs, however, from the power Yhwh voluntarily cedes to humans.
After all, isn’t one of the great contributions of biblical Israel to civilization the concept of monotheism?
Aren’t the Israelites famous for believing in only one God?